每日翻译练习[七三]

Go to the Countryside

 

In December 1955, Mao Zedong wrote that the countryside was a wide place where people could fully develop themselves. This was Mao’s first call for a move to the countryside. This relocation program was practiced first on a limited scale before the Great Leap Forward Movement, resumed in the early 1960s, and accelerated sharply by the late 1960s.

195512月毛泽东指出农村是一个广阔的天地,在那里是可以大有作为的。 这是毛泽东最早发出“上山下乡的”号召。这一运动在大跃进之前并未大规模展开,一直到60年代后期,才出现了高潮。

What really decided the fate of other young people was a statement released by Mao on December 22, 1968. On that day, the People’s Daily carried Mao’s words on its front page. "It is very essential for intellectual young people to go to the countryside to receive re-education from impoverished peasants. We should persuade cadres and others in the city to send their children who graduated from middle schools and universities to the villages. Let’s have a mobilization – all people in the countryside should welcome them."

真正决定千百万知识青年命运的,是1968年12月22日发表的毛泽东的指示。这一天,《人民日报》头版头条的按语转引了毛泽东的最新指示:知识青年到农村去,接受贫下中农再教育,很有必要。要说服城里干部和其他人,把自己初中、高中、大学毕业的子女送到乡下去,来一个动员,各地农村的同志应当欢迎他们去。

Since then, millions of urban educated youth (high school graduates and students) were mobilized and sent "up to the mountains and down to the villages", i.e. to rural villages and to frontier settlements. In these areas, they had to build up and take root, in order to be reeducated by the poor and lower-middle peasants.

从那时开始,几百万的城市知青卷入了“上山下乡”的浪潮,被动员到农村和边疆去。在那些地区,他们要自己成长和扎根,还要受到贫下中农的“教育”。

After Mao’s call, the movement to the countryside reached a peak. While some 1.2 million urban youths were sent to the countryside between 1956 and 1966, no less than 12 million were relocated in the period 1968-1975; this amounts to an estimated 10% of the 1970 urban population In 1969 alone, 2.6 million young people left their homes in the cities and moved to the countryside.

在毛泽东的号召之下,“上山下乡”的运动达到了最高潮。19561966年间的下放青年大约为120万,而19681975年间,这个数字猛然增至1200万以上;1969年下放的人数估计达到了1970年全国城市人口的10%,有260万年轻人离开家乡,投身到广大的农村去。

In principle, the program called for lifelong resettlement in the rural areas, but toward the end of, and in particular after the Cultural Revolution, many were finally able to find jobs or to be transferred back to the cities. A great number of them, however, had resigned themselves to their fate and decided to remain.

原则上,知识分子应该一辈子扎根于农村,但是随着“文革”的结束,很多人有机会找工作或是回城。也有一大部分人屈服于自己的命运,留了下来。

According to the official media, in the countryside with idyllic rural scenes, the youngsters all enjoyed the wholesome life there, and thrived under the stern but correct ideological guidance provided by the peasants. All this should transform them into "new-style, cultured peasants". The young intellectuals were also seen as conveyor belts for technology transfer, as bringers of new knowledge. At that time, much of the youth felt moved to dedicate themselves to the emancipation of humankind and the realization of communism, believing that indulging in urban comfort would disallow them from this lofty cause.

而官方媒体的报道是:这些知识青年在如诗如画的乡村地区茁壮成长,并接受正确的思想教育,他们将被培养成为“有文化的新农民”,还将成为传授技术和知识的纽带。在那个时期,大部分的年轻人都受此影响,决心到农村去解放思想,实现共产主义,而在生活舒适的城市是不能达到的。

In reality, and similar to the May 7th cadre school program, however, many peasants living in the areas where urban youths were resettled resented their arrival. They often saw the youngsters from the cities that did not amount to much in terms of labor power, as a threat to their own survival. Many students could not deal with the harsh life and died in the process of reeducation.

而事实上,像五七干校一样,很多知青的到来受到了农民们的抵制。知青没有什么劳动力,对农民的生存是一种威胁。在再教育的过程中,还有很多人难堪艰苦的生活,甚至付出了自己年轻的生命。

The main reason behind the acceleration of the relocation program in 1968 was an attempt to bring the Red Guards under control and to halt the intense factional struggle and civil strife. With the schools still closed, the government did not know what to do with the millions of urban young. One way to solve the problem was to send the students away to the rural areas and let them fend for themselves. Over the years, many of those who were sent away slowly started to realize this.

1968年,上山下乡的人数剧增,主要目的是要控制红卫兵、抑制激烈的派别斗争和内乱。大部分的学校停课,政府面对几百万的城市青年无计可施,唯一的办法就是把他们送到农村去,任其自生自灭。几年后,很多人才慢慢意识到这点。

The relocation, ordered by the central government, deeply affected a whole generation. In literature, movies and art, many who experienced the life of an "intellectual youngster" in those days think of it as a time which cost them a large part of their youth. The nostalgia exhibited by many of them emerged as a form of cultural resistance against the changing conditions of Chinese modernity. After enduring great hardships, many returned to the cities to find they had missed out on the process of national reform. As many of them had a large gap in their education, they had problems fitting into urban society.

中央政府的“上山下乡”政策,深深影响了一代人。在文学、电影及艺术中,很多经历过“知青”岁月的人都认为这一段时间浪费了他们太多的青春。他们所表现出来的怀旧情结是对当今中国的时代变迁的不满和不认同。当他们历尽千辛万苦回到城市的时候,才发现已经错过了全国改革的机遇,他们在教育方面有严重缺陷,难以融入社会。

Although my brothers and I escaped the "sent-down movement," I grew up witnessing the plight of many people caught in that massive exile, including my sisters. For me, the memory of the sent-down movement registers the most haunting aspect of the Cultural Revolution, its dehumanizing nature matched by few other events of history.

我和兄弟都躲过了“上山下乡”的浪潮,但我也亲眼目睹了很多人在这场运动中受尽苦难(包括我的姐姐)。 “上山下乡”运动是我对文革最深刻的记忆,实在是一次罕见的抹杀人性的历史事件。


 

今日音乐

《大海航行靠舵手》

 

红卫兵们广为传唱的歌曲

具有着鲜明的时代特征

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