每日翻译练习[四七]

Great Leap Forward

大跃进运动

 

As a toddler, I have too little memory of China’s Great Leap Forward campaign (1958-1960), an extraordinarily creative intervention in China’s economic growth under the new "General Line for Socialist Construction". It was aimed at accomplishing the economic and technical development of the country at a vastly faster pace and with greater results by taking two forms: a mass steel campaign plus the formation of the People’s Communes, a new socioeconomic and political system created in the countryside and in a few urban areas. China’s vast countryside became the setting for Mao’s disastrous campaign, and tens of millions of farmers were exhorted to answer Mao’s call to help the country industrialize quickly by operating backyard blast furnaces to produce steel.

1958-1960年,中国内地为了大搞社会主义经济建设,掀起了一股“大跃进”的风潮,作为初学走路的孩童,笔者对这段历史只有少得可怜的一些记忆。大跃进运动以发展经济和科技为目的,主要实行了大炼钢铁运动和人民公社化运动,一种全新的社会政治体系在广大农村和一些城市产生了。有几千万的农民响应毛泽东的号召,砸锅卖铁,在自家后院摆起了炼钢炉,为的是给国家工业发展添砖加瓦。这些农民成为了这次灾难性运动的最大受害者。

The campaign was not merely a bold economic project. It was also intended to show the Soviet Union that the Chinese approach to economic development was more vibrant, and ultimately would be more successful than the Soviet model that had been followed studiously until then. The Chinese people were to go all out in concerted efforts to surpass England in 15 (or even less) years. Mao even attempted to modernize China’s economy so that by 1988, China would have an economy that rivaled America.

这不仅仅是一次单纯的大搞经济发展的运动,也是为了苏联看到了中国搞经济的劲头,要告诉他们这样要比照搬苏联模式有效得多。中国人幻想15内赶超英国,毛泽东甚至大胆设想到1988年超越美国。

This "fever in the brain" held China in its sway, while the more radical officials continued to proclaim imaginary victories in production. By early 1959, it became clear that things were running out of hand. As a result of the massive production drives in steel and agriculture, both production and transport sectors had become severely dislocated. The reality corresponded less and less with the picture painted in the reports to the leadership, as wildly exaggerated figures about food production provided officials at all levels untoward political gains and manipulating economic numbers was a norm to "save face". It was then the public security sectors established a household registration system, hukou, which specifically designated where a person might live and work to stop migrants from leaving their home areas.

这股头脑发热运动越来越来激烈,一些激进的官员开始大肆宣扬经济生产成果。到1959上半年,形势已经开始失控了。盲目的大炼钢和搞农业卫星已经搞得生产和交通行业一团糟。领导曾看到的汇报和现实严重脱节,大部分地区都在浮夸虚报生产成果,然而各级领导们看到却是一个良好的经济水平。不久,户口制度诞生了,居民不得随意离开居住地,而采取严格的登记制度。

However, the campaign turned out to be a crash industrialization program that led to widespread famine.

这一次急于求成的工业化运动,直接导致后来全国性的饥荒。

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One Response to 每日翻译练习[四七]

  1. HUI says:

    我父亲生于1958年,听奶奶说,在他襁褓中,家里的铁锅上缴国家,直接吃公社食堂;父亲刚蹒跚学步,端不稳领到 的那碗粥,摔倒在地,想来,生活馈赠我们的实在太多了。原来我们是真正生在红旗下的一代啊……

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