每日翻译练习[十五]

Mao’s Yan’an Talks
毛泽东在延安文艺座谈会上的讲话

Mao Zedong gave his famous Talks on Art and Literature in Yan’an, May 1942, in the midst of China’s war against Japan, seven years before the communist party took power over China. The purpose of the Talks was to further impress upon the subjects of China the importance of uniting China under one cultural army and using art and literature as a means of expressing this unity. The concepts and ideas discussed in the Talks later turned into policies, artistic standard and style that affected China for many years.
1942年5月,正值抗日战争时期,毛泽东在延安文艺座谈会上作了重要讲话,这时距离新中国解放还有七年时间。这次讲话的目的是强调现今社会的主题;强调成立统一战线的重要性;强调要联合文艺界,以文艺为手段来建立统一战线。这次讲话中的很多理念后来被运用到政策、文艺风格等方面,影响了中国很多年。
The main goal of Mao’s Yan’an Talks was to highlight the importance of "serving the " with art and literature as the main targets. In the Talks, aside from stating that art is subordinated to politics, Mao also instructed artists that their artwork should be intended for "the masses of the people, and in the first place for the workers, peasants and soldiers". As for the content of the artwork, he inculcated the principle that art should portray the struggles in socialist movements and reflect the "new world", "real heroes", and in short, the "bright side" of the society. In order to produce such works of art, in which the style combines "socialist realism and revolutionary romanticism", artists must go among the "grassroots" and be part of the proletarian class. The importance of the Talks and their profound influence on Chinese artists’ works were evident in the artworks produced during the 50s, 60s, and 70s, as artists consistently placed the workers, peasants, and soldiers at the center stage.
毛泽东这次讲话的最大成就是确定了“文艺要为人民大众服务”的目标。除了说明了“文艺要从属于政治”,毛泽东向文艺工作者讲述了他们的工作重点—服务于人民大众,特别是工人、农民和军人。在文艺作品的内容方面,他提出这样的要求:着力描绘社会主义战士们的光荣斗争;反映新时代新英雄的光辉一面;还要尽量反映当时社会的闪光一面。要想形成饱含社会主义斗争现实精神以及革命浪漫主义精神的创作风格,文艺工作者们应该深入群众,和无产阶级打成一片。这次讲话的影响一直维持到解放后,直到70年代,文艺工作者的创作对象都是工人、农名和军人。
It is taken for granted, after all, that artworks often have a political content, especially in highly politicized settings. For a long time, Chinese artists regularly made references to the Talks. The constant allusions were reminders to writers or artists themselves that the purpose of art and literature was to serve the people and the cause of socialism. Most post-liberation artworks did not stray from the principles of the Talks. Not only did they use artistic magic to reflect current politics, but they also consistently portrayed the themes advocated in the Talks. However, since 1978, it starts to indicate a lessening degree of conformity to the earlier guidelines – that art should always depict the "bright side".
很明显,这样产生的文艺作品,都具有明显的政治性。有很长一段时间,中国的唯一界都以这个讲话的内容为参照,要求作家和艺术家的工作要服务于人民大众,服务于社会主义建设。大部分的文艺弓着都很好的遵循了“讲话”的原则,即描绘了当时社会的面貌,有很好的表达了“讲话”的主题。到了1978年以后,对于该讲话的尊崇慢慢在减弱,并不需要时刻表现社会的闪光面。

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